About CHI

What is Chronic Histiocytic Intervillositis (CHI)?

This condition is a placental lesion associated with recurrent pregnancy loss at any stage of pregnancy. The pathology report does not always mention CHI as a possible pathology and may include other names which more or less represent the same thing. These include Chronic (histiocytic) intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE), Massive Chronic Intervillositis, Nonspecific Chronic Macrophagic Intervillositis, Histiocytic Intervillositis, Chronic Villitis or Chronic Villitis of unknown etiology (CVUE)

Clinical Definition:

The diagnosis is a histopathology one and include idiopathic inflammatory lesion, intervillous space location, extensive maternal infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells (monocytes, lymphocytes, histiocytes) in particular CD68, intervillous fibrinoid deposits and trophoblast erosions of varying degree, diffuse (massive) or multifocal infiltration.

Clinical Information:

In a study by Boyd and Redline (“Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: a placental lesion associated with recurrent reproductive loss” Human Pathology 2000 Nov 31(11):1389-96) recurrent rate was 67% for patients with more than one specimen reviewed. Overall perinatal mortality rate was 77%, and only 18% of pregnancies reached 37 weeks. Severe intrauterine growth restriction was seen in 5 of 8 second- and third-trimester patients.

Another study by Marchaudon et al. also examined the placentas from 69 pregnancies with CHIV in 50 women (“Chronic histiocytic intervillositis of unknown aetiology: clinical features in a consecutive series of 69 cases”; Placenta 2011 Feb 32(2): 140-5). Of 39 fetuses surviving to at least 22 weeks, 24 had severe intrauterine growth restriction (61.5%) and 18 died in utero (46.2%).

Autoimmune or allergic phenomena were identified in 11 out of 19 of Boyd and Redline’s patients. In addition, Reus et al. (“An immunological basis for chronic histiocytic intervillositiis in recurrent fetal loss” Am J Reprod Immunol 2013 Sep; 70(3): 230-7) demonstrated higher cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor frequencies CTLpf against their partner in CHIV patients compared to non-complicated pregnancies (P=0.03). Antipaternal HLA antibodies were present in 75%of the CHIV patients compared to none of the controls.

Clinic Fees

  • Initial consultation – £350 (a deductible £100 deposit is required to secure this appointment)
  • Follow up consultation – £200
  • Immune tests- tests range from £150 to £700 each
  • Wellbeing tests- tests range from £60 to £155 each
  • Hormonal tests – tests range from £87 to £105 each
  • Non-invasive Fetal DNA testing- £450
  • Initial scan – £235
  • 3D saline scan – £450
  • HyFosy – £475
  • 3D saline scan + Hyfosy – £625
  • Early pregnancy scans (includes consultation) – £290
  • Nuchal scan (includes blood tests) – £360
  • Anomaly scan- £360
  • Growth scans package (28, 32 and 36 weeks) – £760

    Fetal Medicine scan packages are available on request.
  • Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) – from £1893
  • Hysteroscopy – from £1300
  • Initial consultation –  £285
  • Nurse consultation – £200
  • IVF cycle-  From £3950 (excludes initial and nurse consultations medications,  pre-IVF investigation tests)

    IVF packages are available on request.
  • Initial consultation –  £285
  • Nurse consultation – £200
  • IUI cycle-  From £1200 (excludes initial and nurse consultations medications,  pre-IUI investigation tests)

    IUI packages are available on request
  • Sperm DNA Integrity- £490
  • Semen Analysis- £225
We accept insurance policies from BUPA at CRP Clinic.

Consultations are billed under Professor Shehata’s provider number: 04346007

Tests and investigations are billed under The Miscarriage Clinic’s provider number: 60012322

Please Note:
  • You are responsible for understanding your insurance coverage.
  • Contact your insurer before your initial consultation to verify coverage.
  • Check your policy for coverage limits and excess amounts.
  • Provide us with your insurance details, including membership/policy number and pre-authorization number.
  • Provide us with written confirmation (email or letter) from BUPA as to which tests/investigations they have agreed to cover.
  • If your policy doesn’t cover the full cost, you will be billed for the remaining balance.